Monday, August 24, 2020

Legality and Effectiveness Essay Example for Free

Lawfulness and Effectiveness Essay This paper will talk about the parts of B. F. Skinner’s book Walden Two and the suggestions toward determinism or unrestrained choice inferred through his portrayals and philosophies. The discussion in this paper will introduce the division of through and through freedom and determinism and will end with help in favor of unrestrained choice. Definitions for either perfect will be talked about in the paper just as an introduction of Walden Two being a satire of Plato’s Republic which thus will likewise give a brief definition with regards to whether the book was written in a through and through freedom perspective or that relating to determinism. The associations between Skinner’s ideas of unrestrained choice and determinism are uncontrolled all through the content, and the design by which the book represents Plato’s Republic is striking in its unique situation. Plato’s Republic applies criticisms and conversation between his heroes coordinate precisely those belief systems introduced in altercative style in Skinner’s content. Focuses are available in Skinner’s Walden Two through the discussions or appearing banters between the heroes. The fundamental thought behind each composing is that of finding and strengthening ideal world. In spite of the fact that on occasion Skinner’s work pivots upon the ideas of determinism as in the announcement, â€Å"†¦in the since quite a while ago run man is dictated by the state† (257) there is likewise the argumentative methodology which would express that the general public or the state in this reference would initially must be shaped by the group of free wills all together for an arrangement of codes to be first instated. The practical standards of this code comment on the significance of salubrious living which is additionally overwhelmed by general resistance (148). The subject of perfect world develops in his work through the way toward dodging relational clash; in this manner the unrestrained choice which so commands the writing can't in this idealistic state rule the choice of other cultural individuals and in this Catch 22 is discovered a few problems. The philosophies present in Walden Two strive on exploratory brain science and behaviorism. This implies Walden Two is a trial in lieu of understanding conduct as an element of ecological accounts of encountering outcomes. These encounters dive into the aspect of Walden Two’s society being introduced as a perfect world because of their act of logical social arranging and the manner by which they condition their youngsters (as referenced earlier in the codes). Walden Two is organized after Thoreau’s Walden (just as Plato’s Republic) which premise life after a way of life in which war isn't upheld and the cultivating of rivalry isn't established which along these lines drives inseparably to social difficulty being removed. Additionally, Skinner presents a general public by which negligible utilization is found and a rich social connections, individual joy, and a fantastic work and recreation life is intentionally brought into every region of society through the codes refered to in the paper some time ago. Through and through freedom at that point turns into a factor in this idealistic culture because of its framework. Skinner features all through Frazier’s harangues that the innovation of conduct is the thing that makes a general public increasingly tasteful to the individuals which acquire and live in that society. Along these lines, the self-sufficient operator isn't the main impetus of such a general public but instead the main impetus turns into the first character plan of Walden Two. In Skinner’s society unrestrained choice is additionally decided through foundation by method of Walden Two offering credit to the person for work achieved by their own activities. In this way, the general public depends on the starting power of a worldview or code or activity and this is the place the meaning of unrestrained choice might be found all through the setting of the content. The activities of the characters in the general public are not deterministically grounded however rather, the earth and hereditary possibilities of opportunity cause the general public to be founded on reality whereby reality in this sense is controlled by the individual and not by the general public or strategies for activities found through the earth in which unrestrained choice turns into a stimulus of determinism. The Experimental Analysis of Behavior and Applied Behavior Analysis are procedures characteristic in human undertakings as characterized by Skinner. On the side of the thought of through and through freedom, Skinner composes, â€Å"I have just a single significant trademark, I’m difficult. I’ve had just a single thought in my lifeâ€a genuine idee fixe, having my own way† (271). The possibility of determinism is that unrestrained choice is a trademark that is nonexistent on the grounds that factors in a person’s domain don't take into consideration the worldview of decision to have any importance in choices, wants, needs, or in general close to home fulfillment or different feelings portrayed through choice (envy, love, conscience, possessiveness, and so on ). Frazier anyway calls attention to Castle that â€Å"determinism doesn’t involve that conduct is consistently unsurprising anything else than it suggests that the climate is consistently predictable† (391). Society and social just as mental conduct are items which pivot upon causal laws which implies that we can’t have unrestrained choice; yet counter to this contention it is introduced in the collection of content that choice is characterized through decisions that are unsurprising ahead of time which is genuinely counter profoundly meaning of choice in which determinism of occasions and activities can't be estimated through foreknowledge or some other propelled markers. Frazier contends that through and through freedom and in this manner free decisions would be flighty, yet differentiating this conviction, Frazier states, â€Å"â€Å"For the last a few thousand days, I’ve picked willingly not to color my hair orange. In this manner, it is entirely likely that tomorrow, I will pick willingly not to color my hair orange. † (391). This is anything but a solid counter contention to determinism and by this oversight, it is demonstrated that through and through freedom is the figure included Skinner’s Walden Two, in light of the fact that Frazier’s own volition in the above contention genuinely expresses that he thinks unrestrained choice is just founded on flightiness. The premise of the contention in Walden Two that is on the side of determinism is that on the off chance that determinism is valid, at that point through and through freedom by restriction can't be valid, in any case, in this roundabout contention there exists false notions for, Skinner is accepting that there can't co-propensity a general public wherein both determinism and unrestrained choice can't become authority; notwithstanding, this can't be a legitimate contention since its premise is just found in the way that one can't be genuine all the while. Manor contends with the expectation of complimentary will through the premise of understanding. Both Castle and Frazier contend that a person’s conduct can be controlled or confined through the requirement of power or physical limitation. Through such authorization in any case, the moving of requirement further prompts the individual being constrained upon to respond by method of such power advancing enmity and feel unfree which encourages the idea of unrestrained choice in the reality of a response to drive. Despite the fact that Skinner doesn't advance power as a type of discipline in Walden Two there is a clear reason in the limitation of power which drives the peruser to accept that through and through freedom is attempting to be staunched in the general public and along these lines requirement can't be utilized in light of the fact that it essentially instigates unrestrained choice. Rather, Skinner premise his ideal world on the procedure of uplifting feedback. This implies individuals from Walden Two are given things they like or the things they like are detracted from them on the off chance that they have acted adversely. Along these lines, uplifting feedback isn't resolved to be equivalent to discipline and consequently, the general public can be moderately characterized as staunching through and through freedom which implies that the general public is in acknowledgment of unrestrained choice, yet, choice in the general public perseveres in light of the fact that Walden Two structures its framework subsequent to scotching choice, at any rate in the example of encouraging feedback. Walden Two is promoted intended to deliver an idealistic culture by method of characterizing conduct as being resolved through previous history of encouraging feedback, just as the nearness of condition. Frazier says â€Å"it’s not control that’s lacking when one feels ‘free,’ however the frightful control of power. † In the absolute best society, individuals will feel free since its rulers utilize the study of â€Å"reinforcement theory† or operant molding to inspire alluring conduct without the utilization of power. Frazier: â€Å"Now that we know how uplifting feedback works†¦we can be progressively effective in our social structure. † (p. 394). Therefore, in spite of the fact that the idea of encouraging feedback features behaviorism, the demonstration of support is further helping in the advancement of through and through freedom just by perceiving that choice is inalienable and as an intrinsic quality estimates must be taken so as to balance choice, in the perspective on uplifting feedback in Walden Two. The idea of previous history being of significance to behaviorism in both through and through freedom and determinism, Stace states, â€Å"If a man’s activities were completely controlled by chains of causes extending over into the remote past, with the goal that they could be anticipated in advance by a brain which knew all the causes, it was accepted that they couldn't all things considered be free. This infers a specific meaning of activities done from unrestrained choice was expected, to be specific that they are activities not entirely dictated by causes or unsurprising heretofore. Let us abbreviate this by saying that through and through freedom was characterized as significance indeterminism. This is the off base definition which has prompted the disavowal of through and through freedom. When we see what the genuine definition is we will find that the inquiry whether the world is deterministic†¦or in a measure indeterministic †¦is entirely immaterial to the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Pestle Analysis Is An External Analysis Economics Essay

Pestle Analysis Is An External Analysis Economics Essay It is a piece of the outside investigation when leading a vital examination or doingâ market research, and gives an outline of the diverse large scale ecological elements that the organization needs to think about. This investigation of the outer condition will prompt the distinguishing proof of various chances and dangers. 7.1 PESTLE Analysis of Royal KPN Political Factors The Netherlands opening level of its financial, business laws and venture approach is notable on the planet. The Netherlands economy is very internationalization with least obstruction from the legislature, and its exchange speculation approach is the most open one in the worldâ [1]â . The administration offers numerous sorts of approaches to energize global speculation, and bolster remote organizations to enter the Netherlands. Also, the Netherlands has very much done tax assessment framework and business condition. The Netherlands low duty rate and across the board charge income settlement organize in Europe make its tax collection condition good and alluring (L Zeng 2008). The new Dutch media communications system is generally liberal, without any obstructions to passage, no line-of-business limitations and moderately not many controls on costs. After deregulation, an enormous number of organizations have been in the nearby market to give media transmission benefits and put resources into facilities.â [2]â What's more, the EU media communications controllers never decrease the guideline for the telecom business. The arrangements about cut settlement cost and meandering charges are persistently distributed. The Netherlands, as most Organization for Economic Co-activity and Development (OECD) nations, is confronting a twofold test: to finish the advancement of the media communications showcase, and to get ready for the cutting edge administrative system even with assembly. Monetary Factors The Netherlands is known as the door of the Europe because of its prevalent topographical position. It has a prospering and open monetary which relies intensely upon outside tradeâ [3]â . It is one of the principle outside venture nations with the most positive and alluring business condition on the planet. The Netherland is likewise having a significant impact in the financial and exchanging improvement, and having an enormous number of clients in the EU showcase. Before the finish of 2011, the GDP of the Netherlands is presently positioned sixteenth on the planet, and it is the eighth in imports of products and ventures from the United Statesâ [4]â . Also, the Netherlands has created correspondence framework and progressed shipping system, with two greatest ports (Rotterdam and Amsterdam) and the third biggest air terminal (Schiphol) in the Europe Union. The Netherlands is likewise well known all around the globe by its driving advancements and the board involvement with numero us fields of ventures, for example, the telecom and electronic industry. So, the Netherlands open economy is growing primarily relies upon its great land position, the created transportation framework, the propelled correspondence foundation and the created calculated assistance, just as the amazing government support and alluring business condition, make the Netherlands the most ideal financial condition for working together among all the European nations. Be that as it may, as of late, the entire economy in Europe is genuinely undermined by the European sovereign-obligation emergency. In numerous specialists see, financial downturn in the Euro zone will at present save for quite a while and this likewise influenced the telecom business. The continually debased large scale economy make a clearly decline in incomes of the European telecom organizations, lead to the benefit declined, liquidity crush and market request powerless. Social Factors The Netherlands has a cutting edge and worldwide society, the individuals living here has a high caliber of life. The Netherlands has a long and brilliant history; its unique social culture is so open and gotten truly appropriate for remote individuals. During a few centuries, the Netherlands has acknowledged monstrous workers from everywhere throughout the world. Thus, the bright social history and universal social condition make it ideal for the financial specialists to partake in fluctuates of business exercises. Meanwhile, the preferring business arrangement and stable world of politics give equivalent improvement chances to both neighborhood and outside organizations, which make the Netherlands business condition more broadening. What's more, the Netherlands has excellent work power. The vast majority of the Dutch residents have gotten high instruction or employment preparing, and ace a couple of remote languagesâ [5]â . Also, they are qualified with the mind boggling aptitudes that are required in the cutting edge economy. The Netherlands has a little yet propelled telecom advertise. The broadband, Internet and versatile infiltrations are on the whole a long ways in front of the EU normal. The Netherlands has reliably positioned among the first class broadcast communications showcases inside Western Europe. Broadband administrations will gracefully most prominent open doors for development, while fixed lines are relied upon to keep on declining. Portable broadband associations in the Netherlands have expanded to 882,000 in 2010 and Mobile infiltration came to about 130% in mid 2010. [6] Despite the recessionary conditions such like economy log jam and obligation emergency in Euro zone, Dutch endorsers have demonstrated that they will keep spending, particularly because of their longing for the most recent advancements. Innovative Factors The Netherlands has the main correspondence systems and IT advances in the Europe, which essentially profits by the administration support and mechanical developmentâ [7]â . Presently purchasers in the Netherlands can appreciate an assortment of specialized strategies and an expanded scope of administrations, for example, system and remote system activity. The business has advanced the past limits that kept administrations to voice related ones, which causes the PC and based IT and telecom innovations to turn into the piece of the typical lifeâ [8]â . Therefore, it is getting progressively proficient to do Internet exchanging among organizations in various nations because of the fast improvement of correspondence and IT innovations. Additionally, the Netherlands impeccable business laws and well-working customer showcase have given a decent business condition to the telecom organizations to build up their advances and make more extensive circulation stations. In addition, the Netherlands is among the universes most wired nations with a best in class, 100 percent fiber-optic framework, the biggest transfer speed and Internet Exchange on the European landmass, and a professional innovation government that is resolved to proceeded with research and development. [9] Telecom suppliers in the Netherlands offer a wide scope of administrations and are quick to present new advances. The Netherlands telecom advertise has one of the most progressive frameworks in Europe, which giving a strong establishment to developing packaged administrations contributions. Legitimate Factors The legitimate foundation of the Netherlands is additionally profoundly commended in light of its business laws which take laws letter as primary body and helped with lawful standard speculations (L Zeng 2008). The Independent Post and Telecommunications Authority of the Netherlands (OPTA) advance rivalry, empower development and secure purchasers in telecom markets. OPTA additionally gives licenses for telecom administrators, sets interconnection costs for suppliers and end-clients, and tackle questions between telecom transporters. Radio correspondences Agency Netherlands is liable for acquiring and assigning recurrence space and observing its utilization. Dutch Media Authority maintains the guidelines which are planned in the Dutch Media Act just as in the guidelines dependent on this represent model the Media Decree.â [10]â Dutch Telecommunication Act went into power in December 1998. The Dutch government received the EC Electronic Communications Framework (IRIS 2002-3:4)â and changed the Act in 2004. Major modificationsâ include: 1) Adoption of electronic interchanges in different fields; 2) Expansion of OPTCs expert in rule making; 3) Improvement of shopper assurance, hostile to spam guidelines, utilization of rivalry law; 4) Single system applies to a wide range of electronic correspondence systems including digital TV systems. The updated Act went into power on May 19, 2004. Ecological Factors In the Netherlands, extremely high densities of both populace and financial exercises have prompted serious weights on the countrys condition. Notwithstanding requiring ecological expenses, legislative organizations, similar to Water Boards, have the likelihood to charge expenses. Organizations and families are charged legitimately for some dirtying exercises, for example the release of waste water to the sewers and the creation of waste (Statistics Netherlands, 2012). For organizations, these expenses would be accounted as parts of natural costs which are very high every year. Care for nature is a necessary piece of KPNs business tasks. KPN is specific center onâ responsible vitality use, on the grounds that the media transmission and ICT area expends a great deal of vitality and ICT can assist with decreasing its clients vitality utilization. They plan to ceaselessly improve their natural execution and to turn into a model in this area, just as to watch important guidelines and legislationâ [11]â . Moreover, KPN is devoted to legitimate administration of links, decrease of waste, and different issues that add to improve a situation. In the Netherlands and Germany, KPN has a confirmed natural administration framework (ISO14001). This universal standard is utilized to create ecological arrangement, to oversee natural perspectives and to improve the ecological exhibition of an association. 7.2 PESTLE analys

Monday, July 20, 2020

Startup quotes Mark Zuckerberg from Facebook

Startup quotes Mark Zuckerberg from Facebook Mark Elliott Zuckerberg, born on May 14th in 1984, is a well know web entrepreneur who started Facebook.List of companies Mark Zuckerberg startedCourseMatch; software that helped students choose their classes based on the course selections of other users.Facemash; a website which compared the pictures of two students on campus and allowed users to vote on which one was more attractive.Facebook; a social network that helps people connect and stay updated on friends and family.Due to his wild success with Facebook he accumulated wealth of more than 25 billion USD before his 30th birthday.Startup quotes from Mark Zuckerberg#1: IF YOU JUST WORK ON STUFF THAT YOU LIKE AND YOU’RE PASSIONATE ABOUT, YOU DON’T HAVE TO HAVE A MASTERPLAN WITH HOW THINGS WILL PLAY OUT. by Mark Zuckerberg, Founder Facebook#2: THE BIGGEST RISK IS NOT TAKING ANY RISK IN A WORLD THAT IS CHANGING REALLY QUICKLY, THE ONLY STRATEGY THAT IS GUARANTEED TO FAIL IS NOT TAKING RISKS. by Mark Zuckerberg, Founder Facebook #3: MOVE FAST AND BREAK THINGS. IF YOU ARE NOT BREAKING THINGS, YOU ARE NOT MOVING FAST ENOUGH. by Mark Zuckerberg, Founder Facebook#4: DONE IS BETTER THAN PERFECT by Mark Zuckerberg, Founder Facebook #5: IM CEO, BITCH! by Mark Zuckerberg, Founder Facebook

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Video Games and Violence Essay - 2601 Words

One of the main concerns with respect to violence in video games compared to other media is the fact that games are immersive, and interactive. They are repetitive, and based on a reward system which is a proven psychological component of classical conditioning discovered by Ivan Pavlov. This argument however has been going on since the days of the comic book in the 50s, and because of the graphic violence portrayed in them, parents blamed them for their childrens bad behavior. It seems that blaming games, and other media in this way is quite a lazy view to take. Subsequently, it is really using game manufacturers as a scapegoat, while ignoring the bigger issue, the person who has committed this act of aggression or violence, and†¦show more content†¦Even when games were first introduced in the 1970s there was controversy surrounding them. The first game which had controversy about the violence was Death Race, released in 1976. The object of the game was to run down fleeing gremlins, which then turned into tombstones. Although the graphics were very basic, the stick gremlins apparently resembled pedestrians, and this had people at the time worried about their children playing something so violent. Because of this sick and morbid violence, the 60 minutes news programme broadcast an investigation into the psychological impact of video games. It seems strange considering the look of games these days, and the realistic characters, that people worr ied their children might be influenced by a few white pixels. There is a point to be made that maybe a game full of violence and shooting, could be the last straw to set someone off, who is already a naturally aggressive person anyway, but this is not really the same thing. It is down to each individual what they take from a game, and how they perceive their actions within the game, whether they think it is right or wrong to shoot someone, or to cause violence, comes from your role models who surround you as you grow up. To look at the issue surrounding the effect of violence in video games, the sensible place to start would be to find out what kind of professionalShow MoreRelatedThe Effect of Video Game Violence on Physiological Desensitization to Real-life Violence2765 Words   |  12 Pageschildren who play video games for many hours daily. Addiction controls life of people, there is addiction to drugs, cigarettes, alcohol or gambling, and there are some forms of addiction associated with modern life, such as Internet and video games. Most people think that video games are harmful and waste of time. 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More ways of playing violent video games are created each year, but most of us have this question in mind; do violent video games influence peopleRead MoreVideo Game Violence : Video Games892 Words   |  4 PagesVideo Game Violence On December 14, 2012, a twenty year old boy named Adam Lanza shot twenty children and six staff at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. Before arriving to the school, he shot his mother then committed suicide after the shooting. The reports say that he was influenced to shooting others by the video game â€Å"Call of Duty†. Video game violence is defined as a behavior including physical violence intended to hurt, damage, or kill someone or something impacted by videoRead MoreVideo Games : Violence And Violence1301 Words   |  6 PagesThe issue of violence in these media products has been a highly-debated issue for the past few decades. Recently it has become extremely popular in the subject of violence in video games. It is rumored that games such as â€Å"Call of Duty, Mortal Kombat, Battlefield, Halo and many more have been the culprit behind a recent spike in childhood aggression. Many people have their own views on the subject, but it has been most com monly deduced that aggression is caused by the games, but violence does not alwaysRead MoreVideo Games and Violence942 Words   |  4 Pages Video Games and Violence Awe entering in more advanced society of technology, video games has become a popular source of entertainment among us. Almost all of us has rented or owned a video game and we have spent hours playing it. As we all know, video games have become the second most popular form of entertainment after television; the source of entertainment is proven to be violent. Excessive playing of video games has a huge impact on our life as well asRead MoreVideo Games and Violence1011 Words   |  4 Pagesare probably millions and billions of video games sold every year to people. Some people seem to believe that violence correlates directly with video games. Video games are something that is usually a big interest in people at the ages of 13 to 19 years old. Video games usually start off as a little fun and then turn into a major hobby for some people. Emotions change based on whatever happens while a person is engaging in these games most of the time. These games are another way to observe how p eopleRead MoreVideo Games Violence664 Words   |  3 PagesUNV - 104 August 11, 2013 Video Games and Violence Video games and violence have different effects on children according to the type of video games that is being watched It is important to understand the world of video games. All video games do not prevent violence in children. Parents should take into consideration in monitoring their child while choosing video games. Depending on the video game that is chosen, does not mean the child will result in violent behavior later on in lifeRead MoreViolence in Video Games770 Words   |  3 PagesIn the article from Thom Gillespie states that Grand Theft Auto (GTA) is the latest video game to be known of demeaning our society’s youth in the U.S. He states though however, video games such as GTA are â€Å"art† and deserve protection. Moreover, those games just mirror humanitys violent instincts; they do not provoke violence, Gillespie argues. These games also offer chances for debates about ethical issues and the costs of actions. It is known from his writings that Thom G illespie is a professor

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Google’s Organizational Culture Free Essays

European University – MBA Management Skills – Group A Case Study 1: â€Å"Google† 23 October 2009 Marion Gruber Reinis Onuzans Steven Teves Jessica Wernett Table of Contents 1 Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦3 2 Google’s future growth†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Google’s Organizational Culture or any similar topic only for you Order Now 1 Organizational Culture: Facilitating Aspects†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 4 2. 2 Organizational Culture: Constraining Aspects†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦6 3 Recommendations†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦8 4 References†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 9 5 Table of Figures†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦10 1 Introduction Reading the case study â€Å"Google’s HR Dilemma† by Mridu Verma, we have gained some knowledge about Google’s success story. Within 11 years the company has grown to a global enterprise employing around 20,000 people. Nowadays Google is not associated just with search service. it is also known for working in advertising, publishing, software and Gmail. Google has bought many companies, the best known is YouTube. In the 11 years time the company is running successfully with growing revenue every year. Nothing seems to stop it, because of their power in the market. Furthermore Google has received many awards in ‘’Best Place to Work’’ and has always been known for satisfied and motivated employees. This is attracting new professionals with a high potential, therefore Google is likely to expand and develop new ideas. The case study reveals Google’s organizational culture and structure. It is very unusual, however it proves to work. Case study tells how they provide positive work environment, what kind of people are hired and how Google plan their innovations. The main concern is if they can grow and still be successful with present structure in the company. Everything needs to be changed from time to time in order to maintain achievements. Our report is going to look at how organizational structure will be affected by Google’s presumable growth. We will discuss if any variations should be made, and if the company’s culture will assist or not in its potential growth. Each of us has an opinion whether of not something needs to be changed to improve Google’s future prospects. However all of us believe that some changes should take place. Therefore, we have come up with several suggestions. Google’s future growth To what extend is their organizational culture going to facilitate/constrain their future growth? Corporate Culture is defined as „A blend of values, beliefs, taboos, symbols, rituals and myths all companies develop over time†[1]. Google’s organizational culture has gone through a couple of changes. According to an article from â€Å"The Economist†, Google has a product developm ent system that was working in an informal way, which was working fine when Google was still in the beginning phase of what it has become oday. â€Å"But now that it is a giant with 20,000 employees, the firm risks stifling potential money-spinners with a burgeoning bureaucracy†. [2] So is their way of operating still applicable when the corporation is expanding at this rate? Let us identify the pro’s and cons if Google sticks to its organizational culture as it is. 2. 1 Organizational Culture: Facilitating Aspects The case study has informed us that all engineers are given twenty percent of their time to work on their own ideas. The organizational culture has been working very well over the last years where employees’ morale has been uplifted and gave them flexibility which always resulted positively. We have taken the liberty to compare Google’s current organizational culture with Mr. Abraham Maslow’s principles of human needs, to identify the positive aspects of Google’s work environment as it is. [pic] Figure 1: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Source; http://stanleybronstein. com/blog/maslow. jpg Basic needs such as the physiological and safety, should be assured in every company to ensure the minimum level of motivation an satisfaction of employees. Nevertheless, Google’s human resource management and organizational culture try to encourage their workforce to achieve the next level of needs. The Love/Belonging needs could be enabled through their activity facilities and generous dining area so employees from different departments can exchange their ideas and talk about their work or private life. Maslow has identified that the need of self-esteem and confidence are very important for a person after obtaining the first three needs of its Hierarchy. One of the elements that builds up esteem is the recruitment process that Google executes. Due to this very unique process which includes several tough steps of selection procedures, people who have made it through felt a self fulfilling emotion of achievement. Finally, and probably one of the most important steps in the hierarchy is self-actualization. Google’s corporate culture enables its employees to be creative and independent, therefore allowing more flexibility which increases self-actualization. In short, Google Inc. definitely meets the standards that Maslow set out for the hierarchy of human needs. The way Google’s organizational culture has operated for the last years seemed to have worked just fine, and some might argue that having the attitude of a ‘start-up’ business within a giant corporation could be the reason for all the success. Should the organizational culture keep its structure and identity as it is? 2. 2 Organizational Culture: Constraining Aspects Despite the organizational culture’s positive aspects, analysts fear that this way of structure will soon face its limit if Google keeps expanding at this exponential growth rate. From an external point of view, Google is kind of following the life cycle Microsoft has experienced when they were getting bigger and bigger. During the 80’s and 90’s, Microsoft became dominant in its field of goods and products and were accused by rivals for acting like a monopoly. No anti-trust bodies are on Google’s doorstep yet and surveys have shown that Google has the goodwill for its customers. Nevertheless Greg Sterling, head of a research agency specializing in internet companies claims, Google has an image problem. He states: ‘In the industry, around Wall Street and in Silicon Valley, there is a perception that Google is the Microsoft of the internet. It has to do with power, of course. In simple terms, Google has become a victim of its own success. ‘[3] Internally, the Google corporation is about to suffer as well. Their ‘small business’ style of operating gets in the way when the company is expanding at this growth rate. Because the company has more than 20,000 people now the efficiency in work as well as the innovative product launching is more difficult to control in this work format. Because of this lack of control, employee dissatisfaction has slowly arisen and is growing throughout the Google industry. Former employees have said that they feel „disposable and easily replaced by their managersâ€Å". [4] When you change the flexible organizational structure into a more controlled work environment, you might risk employees disagreeing with the sudden change in management style and as a consequence creativity, motivation and morale will decrease. Brockett (2008) quotes that there is no specific talent programme at Google. But they have difficulties in motivating their programmers to take over managing functions. Since they love their job so much they are not very willing to spent time on managing others. [5] Product manager Robert Kniaz stated „it has become harder to keep the same level of excitement you had when it’s you and your friends working late at nightâ€Å". Even though they have a team that’s developing policies for Google to be run as a corporation instead of a small business, Google fears that these policies might take away the creativity as well as the flexibility from the employee. [6] Google’s organizational culture has to adapt to the company’s growth. Yet, changing a pattern is difficult and could raise issues. 3 Recommendations The nature of Google’s mission combined with their organizational culture makes expansion rather inevitable. We do not believe Google’s successful track record of increasing net earnings each year and the stimulated self-directed employees are just a coincidence. Our opinion and recommendation is based on our belief that Google’s unique corporate culture clearly affects the financial success of the corporation, but as expansion takes over there are necessary changes Google must make to ensure continual success. Our recommendation is as follows: Google should introduce a bureaucratic system of communication while maintaining their underlying values of universalism, stimulation, and self-direction. Prior to 2005, Google had been rightfully criticized for being arrogant and disorganized, but as Google expanded it did become more structured[7]. During this structural change, Google sustained its ‘small business’ attitude (small teams, open communication policy, informal atmosphere, and idea sharing). Now, four years later and nearly 15,000 more employees, Google is losing their ‘small business’ mentality. As the business grows, so do the complexities. Complexities always add an element of difficulty and involvedness, which makes the need for clear and cut bureaucratic organization and communication system deemed very necessary. Team Leaders To keep teams working efficiently internally and externally we recommend Google to institute a ‘team leader’ into each team. This person is someone who is already part of the team and exhibits superior organizational and management skills. This person will serve as a liaison between the team and the team’s project manager. The team leader will ensure short-term goals and deadlines are being met. Progress reports Once per week, team members will answer a series of questions pertaining to the specifics of what they have accomplished in the past week. This is to ensure there is no overlap or communication gap in current projects. The team leader will analyze each document and valid elements will then be brought to the attention of the project manager. This step is to ensure important but possibility over sighted details to not get left out when the project managers have meetings. Progress reports will aid in catching the good idea and catching the ideas to drop before too many resources have been poured into them. Since Google is comprised of so many creative and innovative people, many bureaucratic systems get pushed to the way side because they are seen as inhibitors. A bureaucratic system of communication will increase efficiency with the company while still being able to hold true to it core value system. 4 References †¢ 1@ â€Å"Term definition: Corporate Culture† Entrepreneur. com,  ©2009 †¢ 2@ â€Å"Creative Tension† The Economist, September 17, 2009 †¢ 3@ WACHMAN, R. â€Å"Google’s expansion is coming at a price: it’s losing its popularity†, The Observer 25th March 2007 †¢ 4@ MONTALBANO, E. , â€Å"Growing pains for Google†, Computerworld 20th October 2008 †¢ 5@ MONTALBANO, E. , â€Å"Growing pains for Google†, Computerworld 20th October 2008 †¢ 6@ MRIDU, V. , 2006. †Å"Google’s HR Dilemma†, ICFAI Business School, Pune, Pg. 5 †¢ 7@ BROCKETT, J. , 2008. Finders keepers, People Management magazine, published 18 September 2008 5 Table of Figures Figure 1: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs,†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦5 ———————– 1] â€Å"Term definition: Corporate Culture† Entrepreneur. com,  ©2009 [2] â€Å"Creative Tension† The Economist September 17, 2009 [3] Wachman, Richard, â€Å"Google’s expansion is coming at a price: it’s losing its popularity†, The Observer 25th March 2007 [4] Montalbano, Elizabeth, â€Å"Growing pains for Google†, Computerworld 20th October 2008 [5] Brockett, J. , 2008. Finders keepers, People Management magazine, published 18 Sept. 2008 [6] Montalbano, Elizabeth, â€Å"Growing pains for Google†, Computerworld 20th October 2008 [7] Mridu Verma â€Å"Google’s HR Dilemma† 2006, ICFAI Business School, Pune, Pg. 5 How to cite Google’s Organizational Culture, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Metacognition Students Employing a Metacognitive Perspective Enjoy Certain Advantages Essay Example

Metacognition: Students Employing a Metacognitive Perspective Enjoy Certain Advantages Essay Metacognition: Students Employing a Metacognitive Perspective Enjoy Certain Advantages Name: Course: Institution: We will write a custom essay sample on Metacognition: Students Employing a Metacognitive Perspective Enjoy Certain Advantages specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Metacognition: Students Employing a Metacognitive Perspective Enjoy Certain Advantages specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Metacognition: Students Employing a Metacognitive Perspective Enjoy Certain Advantages specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Instructor: Date: Metacognition: Students Employing a Metacognitive Perspective Enjoy Certain Advantages Introduction Metacognition is defined as the process of â€Å"thinking about thinking.† Metacognition is the process of monitoring and controlling of one’s own knowledge, actions and emotions through assessing them or thinking about them. For instance, when one reads a complex text and finds it hard to comprehend, one can evaluate their learning strategy. Evaluating or thinking about the best strategy for reading the texts amounts to metacognition. Additionally, metacognition involves monitoring one’s own cognitive processes. This is how one learns and comprehends things. When one is aware of the problems they have within their cognition, they are able to focus on what works for them. Another definition of metacognition specific for education is the ability of students being aware of their understanding level in different topics. Thus, when students use metacognition, they are well positioned to evaluate what they already know about a topic, and what they need to learn. This gives them an added advantage when it comes to learning, since they are aware of what problems they have with their learning. The ability to know and understand one’s own cognitive processes allows students to find out the best learning strategies as well as their strengths in comprehending while learning, allowing them to employ other strategies that better improves their performance. Practically, the ability to be self aware of one’s cognitive abilities and processes enables them to regulate their cognition, maximize their potential in learning, thinking, and evaluating themselves as well as their performance. Students using metacognition have a great advantage since the ability to be self aware of one’s own level of knowledge and cognition processes helps them in making better decisions concerning their studies such as learning strategies to use and what to study. Metacognition and Learning Process and Strategy Metacognition is about the awareness of one’s own level of knowledge and learning processes or cognitive processes. Cognitive process in learning refers to the process through which a person learns new things, such as through reading, observations, and listening. Using metacognition in evaluating the cognitive processes one can realize what would be their best cognitive strategy for learning. For instance, some people will know that learning in a library through engaging in in-depth reading, works better for them in certain topics, while others may know that comprehending a scientific text will require them to read wider than when comprehending history texts. Thus, understanding of one’s own cognitive process is a step towards improving performance. Metacognition allows students to questions themselves about the ideal active learning technique for them. Seeking to find out the ideal active learning technique allows students to find out what their learning capabilities a re. With the ideal learning technique in mind, one can use it on the topics they need to comprehend. Lack of knowledge on one’s own cognitive process or learning process will lead students to using the wrong learning methods, probably those that might not be ideal for them. For instance, some students will only be aware of reading to pass quizzes instead of reading to apply knowledge. This could work for topics that do not need application. However, for other topics such as literature where one is supposed to apply the knowledge in analyzing other materials, such students will be in trouble analyzing other works. Therefore, they end up fining it hard to understand some topics. Some topics are hard to comprehend than others, requiring extra keenness and focus. However, without knowing about one’s own ideal learning strategy, one may use the wrong technique, and end up never comprehending the topic. Some people will learn better through seeking answers to questions, whil e other will learn better through reading deeper and taking notes for revision. Therefore, learning about the learning strategies available would be the first requirement for students in order to have several to choose from depending on the topics and the ideal strategy. Metacognition and Level of Knowledge Lang (2012) explains that metacognition â€Å"is a person’s awareness of his or her own level of knowledge and thought processes. In education, it has to do with students’ awareness of their actual level of understanding of a topic.† About understanding of one’s own thought has already been addressed in the previous paragraph. In this paragraph, the focus is about awareness of one’s level of knowledge. Understanding of one’s own level of knowledge is about awareness of what one already knows, and what one does not. Many students will feel that they understand a certain topic well after reading it. The truth could be they are not aware of what they know and do not know. For instance, some students might have confidence about a certain topic, only to receive poor grades after an exam. They feel the answers they gave are satisfactory, but the truth is that they do not know the level of their knowledge. In short, they have poor metacognition, and can hardly realize this. â€Å"Weaker students typically have poor metacognition; they are grossly overconfident in their level of understanding. They think they have a good understanding when they really have a shallow†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Lang 2012). He further says that such lack of metacognition contributes to poor decisions by such students, where thinking they already know a lot stops them from reading widely. They stop studying topic, even before they have enough in-depth knowledge and comprehension that is necessary for handling examination questions. On the other hand, students with better metacognition will understand the level of their knowledge, be aware of what they know as well as what they do not know. This will help them in reading deeper in order to establish what they have not covered. Students with good metacognition have a chance of improving their performance since they are aware of what they need to do to improve unlike those who lack metacognition, and never know what to do to improve. Social Metacognition Metacognition is a matter of assessing one’s own knowledge and learning processes as explained. Some people will have good metacognition while others will lack good metacognition. The above two parts focus on individual metacognition for improving performance, while social performance also helps students in improving their performance. Social metacognition is about assessing the level of knowledge and learning processes of other people. Chiu and Kuo (2010) cite â€Å"social metacognition is an extension of metacognition into group interactions† (321). When students come together for group discussions, they can help each other through assessing each other’s metacognition. For instance, when two students, A and B engage in a discussion, A could realize that B is using a method that is quite complex to comprehend. When A realizes the learning strategy used by B is wrong, he is engaging in social metacognition, since he assesses the strategy used by B. A could sugge st another strategy to B, which could work better. Using groups enables the two students to help each other out, and this could go a long way in helping improve their individual metacognition. Through social metacognition, individuals can realize some of their strategies are not acceptable by learning other strategies from other students. Thus, monitoring and controlling each other’s knowledge and learning processes to solve group problems, helps students in assessing their own processes while learning from others. â€Å"Social metacognition distributes metacognitive demands among group members, increases the visibility of one another’s metacognition, and improves individual cognition, resulting in a reciprocal scaffolding and greater motivation,† (Chiu and Kuo, 2010. p.322). This goes ahead to help students in improving their performance the ability of social metacognition in highlighting individual limitations, expanding of their understanding and helping in s haring of knowledge. Counter Argument Despite the ability of metacognition in improving performance to students who use it, it could also act in the opposite direction. Students are likely to devote a lot of time to metacognitive processes and end up evaluating themselves incorrectly. Additionally, Chiu and Kuo (2010) cite that students could end up scaffolding poorly. However, through social metacognition, some of these difficulties could be avoided since one will be assessed by others, making evaluation more accurate. On the other hand, social metacognition is limited especially where one person might dominate others, and communication difficulties. Despite the benefits of metacognition, assessing and evaluating oneself is not easy and poses problems of inaccuracy. Annotated Bibliography Chiu, M.M., Kuo, S.W. (2010). From Metacognition to Social Metacognition: Similarities, Differences, and Learning. Journal of Education, 3 (4): 321- 338 In this article, Chiu and Kou explore the ideas behind metacognition and social metacognition. They cite that individual metacognition is controlling and monitoring of one’s own knowledge and, emotions, and actions, while social refers to the same, but in this case done to others in a groups where one assesses and controls other people’s knowledge. They explore the differences and similarities of the two, as well as their benefits and difficulties. The article provides a reliable source of secondary research. Lang J. M. (2012). Metacognition and Student Learning. The Chronicle of Higher Education In this article, the author explores and explains metacognition through examples in real life. For instance, he starts by mentioning about how people will enjoy watching some poor singers who went for auditions in the Idols reality show, believing they are good while they are pathetic. He goes ahead to explain metacognition in relation to education. He cites that metacognition in education is about knowing one’s own level of knowledge about a particular topic. He goes ahead to cite other professionals in the area about metacognition and ways of learning metacognition. The article is ideal for research on identifying metacognition in people and ways it can be used in helping students improve performance. References Chiu, M.M., Kuo, S.W. (2010). From Metacognition to Social Metacognition: Similarities, Differences, and Learning. Journal of Education, 3 (4): 321- 338 Lang J. M. (2012). Metacognition and Student Learning. The Chronicle of Higher Education

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Pulmonary Edema Market Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast, 2013 2019 Essays

Pulmonary Edema Market Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast, 2013 2019 Essays Pulmonary Edema Market Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast, 2013 2019 Essay Pulmonary Edema Market Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast, 2013 2019 Essay Pulmonary Edema Market Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends And Forecast, 2013 2019 Pulmonary edema is a medical condition, in which, the fluid is accumulated in air spaces and parenchyma of lung cells. This affects the gas exchange activity by lungs and leads to respiratory failure. In case of severe pulmonary edema, the condition could be life-threatening and need emergency medical treatment. The important causes includes cardiac arrest and cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension, kidney failure, upper airway obstruction and others. The major symptoms includes shortness of breath, blood coughing, heavy sweating, which leads to respiratory failure and may also cause death.Visit Complete Report Here: The diagnosis of pulmonary edema is possible through chest x-ray, ECG, echocardiogram, renal and liver function tests and blood tests for electrolytes concentration. The disease is managed through emergency management techniques, such as, proper ventilation (natural or mechanical), antibiotics (if pulmonary edema is induced by lung infections), loop diuretics (furosemide, bumetanide), respiratory distress agents (morphine), and antipyretics (to minimize pains). The market of emergency management techniques and medicaments is expected to grow in the upcoming future. However, the disease can be prevented via use of dexamethasone and sildenafil (to prevent high altitude hypoxia) and steady physical activities. Some of the key drivers propelling the growth of global market includes, increased prevalence of cardiac attacks and associated disorders, change in lifestyle, extensive RD activities, increasedawareness about cardiac arrest preventive therapies and increase in pollution. Increased prevalence of cardiac arrest is one of the major factor contributing to the growth of this market.